Perfume is made up of alcohol, water & perfume (fragrance) oil.
It is a word that comes from Latin per fumum, which means "through smoke" (per means through, fumum means smoke).
There are 3 major types: oriental, floral & chypre (means "very sincere" in French). There are also many sub-variations such as woody, musky, aquatic, spicy & fruity.
Eau de - means "water of" in French.
Eau de cologne - contains about 3-5% perfume oil. Used by men.
Aftershave lotions & splash colognes - contains about 0.5-2% perfume oil. Used by men.
Eau de parfum - contains about 15-18% perfume oil. Used by women.
Eau de toilette - contains about 4-8% perfume oil. Used by women.
Parfum (perfume) is the strongest of them all as it contains the most perfume oil. Use sparingly.
Scented ingredients added to perfumes include ginger, grapefruit, musk, peppercorns, mandarin peel, fig leaves, rose, watercress, bamboo, clementine, vanilia, honeysuckle, green tea & the list goes on.
A perfume contains between 10 to more than 250 ingredients.